“Nobody dislikes war more than warriors.” — USAF Gen. Daniel “Chappie” James Jr.
In 1908, William B. Sawyer arrived in Miami. A physician who became a wealthy landlord, a hotel owner and a crusader against tuberculosis in South Florida, Sawyer often offered sage advice over one of his favorite pastimes — checkers.
“In his more quiet moments, Sawyer enjoyed passing the time playing checkers with other men on the front porch of his doctor’s office in Colored Town. Between jumps, according to observers many years later, Sawyer would encourage his friends and neighbors to pool their money, buy land and “become taxpayers.” Sawyer likely explained how owning property allowed colored people to vote in “freeholder” elections. The names of new black deed holders were also printed in the newspaper every year, serving as public recognition of the Negro’s economic discipline.”
Sources: A World More Concrete: Real Estate and the Remaking of Jim Crow South Florida by N.D.B. Connolly The University of Chicago Press 2014 p. 30; and South Florida’s Black Business Pioneers Paved Way for Others, Miami Herald Jan. 31, 2000
Photo Credit: Black Market
On December 12, 2000, just one day after attorneys made their arguments before the U.S. Supreme Court in the case of Bush v. Gore, the High Court issued a ruling that made Texas Gov. George W.. Bush. the 43rd president of the United States.
Florida Supreme Court Justice Peggy Quince and her colleagues had ruled earlier in the controversial election to hold a recount of some of the contested ballots in Florida.
Vice President Al Gore appeared to have the votes to win Florida, but Bush surged ahead in a very close race. The candidate with the most votes would win Florida’s 29 electoral votes and the presidency.
Quince and a majority of her colleagues on the Florida Supreme Court ruled for the recount to ease mounting tensions. However, the U.S. Supreme Court overruled the state court decision, ending the count and the election.
“Even though the U.S. Supreme Court eventually overruled what we had said, I’m still very proud of how this Court handled itself. I think we did exactly what courts are required to do. But I also am very proud of the fact that the people of this state and of this country accepted the final product, whether we agree with it or not.”
Source: Florida’s Minority Trailblazers: The Men and Women Who Changed the Face of Florida Government by Susan A. MacManus University Press of Florida, 2017 pages 392-393
“I learned to drive an automobile during that first summer, a Hupumobile. After two attempts and two failures, I passed the driver’s exam and secured my license. But, I found it next to impossible to keep my mind on the road when I drove. I would drive all around town in first gear, a trail of exhaust following behind. before long my driving became notorious. No one in his right mind would ride with me. When I took burial ceremonies at the cemetery, cars would line up — all of them full to capacity — while my five passenger car stood empty, save for me, the driver.”
Source: With Head and Heart: The Autobiography of Howard Thurman Harcourt Brace & Co. 1979 p. 56
“In 1947, wooden shotgun shacks still made up nearly 80 percent of all the homes in [Miami’s] Colored Town. Other kinds of wood construction continued to house black folk through Dade, Broward and Monroe counties.”
Source: A World More Concrete: Real Estate and the Making of Jim Crow South Florida by N.D.B. Connolly University of Chicago Press, 2014 p. 168
“In late 1833, William Pope DuVal resigned as governor of Florida. During his twelve years in office, he had turned a territory at peace into a swamp of injustice, ethnic hatred and smoldering violence. He did not intend to be the one in charge when the chickens came home to roost.”
Source: Finding Florida: The True History of the Sunshine State by T.D. Allman Grove Press, 2013 p. 138
Mary McLeod Bethune made this day a red-letter date in American history for black women. On December 5, 1935, she founded the National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) as an “organization of organizations” to represent the concerns of Black women, here in America and abroad.
The NCNW gave black women the chance to realize their aspirations for social justice and human rights as the organization took on job discrimination, barriers to voting rights and fought for anti-lynching laws. Today, the NCNW consists of roughly 36 national African American women’s organizations and more than 230 community and campus based sections. It’s mission remains to advocate, empower and lead nearly three million women , their families and communities.
Bethune, of course, was a noted educator, founder of Bethune Cookman College, and perhaps the most influential black woman of her time. The NCNW is just one of the many accomplishments that are part of Bethune’s rich legacy.
Photo Credit: Carl Van Vechten
“Men may concede that public sentiment, and not law, is the cause of the discrimination of which we justly complain and the resultant disabilities under which we labor. If this be so, then such public sentiment needs penal correction, and should be regulated by law. Let it be decidedly understood, by appropriate enactment, that the individual rights, privileges, and immunities of the citizens, irrespective of color, to all facilities afforded by corporations, licensed establishments, common carriers, and institutions supported by the public, are sacred, under the law, and that violations of the same will entail punishment safe and certain. We will then hear no more of a public sentiment that feeds upon the remnants of the rotten dogmas of the past, and seeks a vitality in the exercise of a tyranny both cheap and unmanly.” — Florida Congressman Josiah T. Walls addressing the Civil Rights Act of 1875
Source: Neglected Voices, New York University School of Law
Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons
“Sometimes I feel discriminated against, but it doesn’t make me angry. It merely astonishes me. How can deny themselves the pleasure of my company? It’s beyond me.” — Zora Neale Hurston
“Colored Town stood as an invention of Henry Flagler. Initially white and colored workers lived together on the grounds of Flagler’s Royal Palm Hotel during its construction. But once workers completed the project, Flagler bought a separate tract of land on which his colored workers could build their own homes. Black workers bought bought 50-by-150 foot lots of uncleared land from Flagler at a cost of fifty dollars each. Flagler also donated a plot of land to every religious denomination represented among Miami’s colored people. Cobbled together, these lots would make up Colored Town, with Flagler’s railroad tracks on the eastern edge of the black district, serving as the first and longest lasting boundary between colored and white Miami.”
Source: A World More Concrete: Real Estate and the Remaking of Jim Crow South Florida by N.D.B. Connolly The University of Chicago Press 2014 p. 26
Photo Credit: WikiMedia Commons